October 2015 Permafrost Alert
The U.S. Permafrost Association, together with the American Geosciences Institute (AGI), is pleased to provide the following Permafrost Monthly Alerts (PMA). The AGI GeoRef service regularly scans the contents of over 3500 journals in 40 languages from the global geosciences literature, comprised of approximately 345 different sources. In addition to journals, special publications such as papers in proceedings and hard-to-find publications are provided. Each PMA represents a listing of the permafrost-related materials added to GeoRef during the previous month. Where available, a direct link to the publication is included, which provides access to the full document if you or your institution have a current online subscription.
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15109776 Favaro, Elena A. (Queen's University, Department of Geography, Kingston, ON, Canada) and Lamoureux, Scott F. Downstream patterns of suspended sediment transport in a high Arctic river influenced by permafrost disturbance and recent climate change: Geomorphology, 246, p. 359-369, illus. incl. 1 table, sketch map, 42 ref., October 1, 2015.
Spatially and temporally variable suspended sediment transport from upstream sources was investigated in the West River (unofficial name) at the Cape Bounty Arctic Watershed Observatory (CBAWO) on Melville Island, Nunavut (74°55' N, 109°35' W), a river with nearly a decade of hydrological and sediment transport research in the Canadian Arctic and subject to recent permafrost disturbances, such as soil skin flows on slopes, massive ground ice melt in the channel, and substantial climate change. During the 2012 season, a survey was undertaken during the nival period to identify areas of the river where the flow was isolated from the channel bed by snow and where it progressively reached the bed. During the nival period, and throughout the rest of the season, suspended sediment transport data were collected from a primary outlet station and six upstream locations to identify the sources and sinks of sediment in the various reaches of the West River. An inferred sediment budget approach was used to identify the storage and release dynamics in each reach. Nival event-scale hysteresis and seasonal diurnal hysteresis patterns for 2012 were primarily anticlockwise, suggesting that sources of sediment were not readily available for transport during peak flows but became available as discharge waned. Analysis of diurnal hysteresis relationships for the years 2004-2012 (excluding 2011) signals a shift in daily sediment-discharge hysteresis from primarily clockwise to anticlockwise following an episode of permafrost disturbance and enhanced erosion in 2007. Consistent sediment storage in the upper catchment from this disturbance is interpreted to have contributed to the shift to anticlockwise daily hysteresis. Results provide insights into the fluvial and geomorphological response to changes in sediment availability in Arctic rivers and how these changes in turn affect sediment transport in these environments. Abstract Copyright (2015) Elsevier, B.V.
15105753 Wang Pingkang (China Geological Survey, Oil and Gas Survey, Beijing, China); Huang Xia; Pang Shouji; Zhu Youhai; Lu Zhenquan; Zhang Shuai; Liu Hui; Yang Kaili and Li Bing. Geochemical dynamics of the gas hydrate system in the Qilian Mountain permafrost, Qinghai, northwest China: Marine and Petroleum Geology, 59, p. 72-90, illus. incl. 5 tables, geol. sketch map, 77 ref., January 2015.
The gas hydrate system in the Qilian Mountain permafrost region exists as an epigenetic hydrocarbon reservoir situated over a deep-seated potential hydrocarbon reservoir. This system is characterized by a particular series of geochemical processes and elemental behaviors, which control the origin of the gases, associated mineralization processes, and the geochemical migration and enrichment of different elements. In this study, we discuss these processes based on compositional analyses of the hydrate-bound gases, associated minerals, fracture fluid, and major, trace, and rare earth element behaviors. Most of the hydrate-bound gases are thermogenic in origin, with minor additional mixed microbial and thermogenic methane that is sourced from sapropelic kerogens in the underlying hydrocarbon reservoir. Episodes of mineralization that formed pyrite, alstonite, and ankerite along rock fractures were likely caused by decomposition of nearby gas hydrate, due to shrinkage of the gas hydrate stability zone. Major element concentration anomalies partly result from ion-precipitation that occurred in the pore and fracture fluid during hydrate formation and decomposition. Most of the anomalies in the measured trace element concentrations are interpreted to demarcate the base of the gas hydrate layer, as low-temperature hydrate has a strong sealing ability. Some of these enriched elements are shown to have migrated into the pyrite crystals, causing their anomalously high concentrations. In addition, the pyrite REE pattern varies with depth and, for pyrites with the same origin, the presence of a hydrate reservoir may be the major cause of fractionation of REE into pyrite. This study provides a new description of the geochemical dynamics of a gas hydrate system operating in a region of permafrost. Abstract Copyright (2015) Elsevier, B.V.
15109121 Drozdov, A. V. (ALROSA Diamond Mining, Yakutsk, Russian Federation) and Popov, V. F. Udaleniye drenazhnykh rassolov v nedra kriolitozony pri razrabotke almaznykh mestorozhdeniy yakutii [Removal of drainage brines in subsurface permafrost zone during development and exploration of diamond deposits in the Yakutia region]: Razvedka i Okhrana Nedr, 2013(12), p. 44-49 (English sum.), illus., 6 ref., December 2013. y.
Ways of drainage water removal coming in mine workings which are used by ALROSA joint-stock company on the largest diamond deposits of the Western Yakutia are observed. Permafrost-geological conditions of region and carried out ways of control allow to use the top part of cryolithozone permafrost rocks and under-permafrost water-bearing horizons as objects for removal of mineralized drains and to perform diamond mining without a considerable damage of environment.
15105456 Nicholson, Wayne L. (University of Florida, Department of Microbiology and Cell Science, Merritt Island, FL); Krivushin, Kirill; Gilichinsky, David and Schuerger, Andrew C. Growth of Carnobacterium spp. from permafrost under low pressure, temperature, and anoxic atmosphere has implications for Earth microbes on Mars: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 110(2), p. 666-671, illus. incl. 2 tables, sketch map, 30 ref., January 8, 2013.
The ability of terrestrial microorganisms to grow in the near-surface environment of Mars is of importance to the search for life and protection of that planet from forward contamination by human and robotic exploration. Because most water on present-day Mars is frozen in the regolith, permafrosts are considered to be terrestrial analogs of the martian subsurface environment. Six bacterial isolates were obtained from a permafrost borehole in northeastern Siberia capable of growth under conditions of low temperature (0 °C), low pressure (7 mbar), and a CO2-enriched anoxic atmosphere. By 16S ribosomal DNA analysis, all six permafrost isolates were identified as species of the genus Carnobacterium, most closely related to C. inhibens (five isolates) and C. viridans (one isolate). Quantitative growth assays demonstrated that the six permafrost isolates, as well as nine type species of Carnobacterium (C. alterfunditum, C. divergens, C. funditum, C. gallinarum, C. inhibens, C. maltaromaticum, C. mobile, C. pleistocenium, and C. viridans) were all capable of growth under cold, low-pressure, anoxic conditions, thus extending the low-pressure extreme at which life can function.
15109750 Matthews, John A. (Swansea University, Department of Geography, Swansea, United Kingdom) and Wilson, Peter. Improved Schmidt-hammer exposure ages for active and relict pronival ramparts in southern Norway, and their palaeoenvironmental implications: Geomorphology, 246, p. 7-21, illus. incl. 3 tables, sketch maps, 63 ref., October 1, 2015.
Eight pronival (protalus) ramparts from alpine southern Norway were dated using Schmidt-hammer exposure-age dating (SHD) based on local high-precision linear calibration equations. SHD ages were - 1355 ± 1240 to 815 ± 1000 years for three active ramparts and 8730 ± 1050 to 14,635 ± 1060 years for five relict ramparts. Different parts of the same rampart yielded ages that were in generally good agreement. R-value frequency distributions enabled the identification single-age and mixed-age boulder populations, and the differentiation of active and relict rampart surfaces. The relict ramparts are located outside Younger Dryas glacier limits and probably formed over a period of ~ 6000 years between deglaciation (following the Last Glacial Maximum of the late Weichselian, ~ 18,000 years ago) and the end of the Younger Dryas (~ 11,700 years ago). At that time, glacial debuttressing and permafrost degradation apparently enhanced the release of rock debris from rock faces to the ramparts. The active ramparts, which are located in areas deglaciated after the Younger Dryas, are relatively uncommon in the study area due to diminished paraglacial effects and limited debris supply associated with seasonally frozen ground during the Holocene. Thus, the legacy of glaciers, glacier-permafrost interaction, and the specific type of periglacial environment must all be considered when assessing the palaeoenvironmental and palaeoclimatic significance of pronival ramparts. Abstract Copyright (2015) Elsevier, B.V.
15102409 Gao Siru (Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Frozen Soil Engineering, Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Lanzhou, China) and Wu Qingbai. Period analysis and trend forecast for soil temperature in the Qinghai-Xizang Highway by wavelet transformation: Environmental Earth Sciences, 74(4), p. 2883-2891, illus. incl. 3 tables, sketch maps, 42 ref., August 2015.
Soil temperature is a key factor in engineering design, construction and operation involved in permafrost engineering, and is closely associated with engineering stability. Here, the study shows that the wavelet transformation analysis method provides a better understanding of soil temperature in the time-frequency domain. Semimonthly soil temperature time series for two monitoring sites along the Qinghai-Xizang Highway were analyzed using wavelet analysis from 1996 to 2012. Periodic characteristics and trends in soil temperature were determined. The results show that soil temperatures under natural ground and embankment settings have similar periodic change at both sites. Six periods of 18, 36, 78, 130, 220 and 342 half-months were observed. Cold/warm cycles in soil temperature were qualitatively appraised using Morlet wavelets for soil temperatures at these two sites over a cold period in 2012, as well as for soil temperature below embankment at site no. 5 over a warm period. The changes in soil temperature were quantitatively appraised by decomposing and reconstructing soil temperature using dbN wavelets; soil temperature at both sites showed an increasing trend over the past 17 years, with a rise in soil temperature under the natural ground and the embankment corresponding to 0.022 and 0.072 °C a-1 in warm permafrost and 0.048 and 0.007 °C a-1 in cold permafrost. Copyright 2015 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg
15109466 Kasimov, N. S. (Moscow State University, Department of Geography, Moscow, Russian Federation); Kotlyakov, V. M.; Chilingarov, A. N.; Krasnikov, D. M. and Tikunov, V. S. Natsional'nyy atlas Arktiki; struktura i etapy razrabotki [National atlas of the Arctic; structure and stages of development]: Led i Sneg = Ice and Snow, 129, p. 4-14 (English sum.), illus. incl. sketch map, 7 ref., 2015.
On the instructions of President and Government of the Russian Federation, works for development of National Atlas of Arctic are started in the country. In this article the authors present their ideas from viewpoint of geographers who are well experienced in the field of cartographic works. A structure of future Atlas and lines of approaches to its development are proposed. The totality of experiences of preparation of other geographical atlases in both, the USSR and Russia, as well as the latest achievements of cartography, aerospace sources and GIS-technologies are recommended to be used. The National Atlas of Arctic is understood as a collection of knowledge of spatial-temporal information about geographical, ecological, economic, historical-ethnographic, cultural and social features of the Arctic. This cartographic model of the territory is designed for using in a wide range of scientific, managing, economic, defensive and social activities. A hard copy of the atlas is intended to be used as scientific-reference publication while its electronic version will make it possible to renovate its content and to improve it by means of actualization according to various directions of its practical use 16 sections proposed in a draft of the Atlas content are as follows: introductory, geological structure, relief, mineral resources, environment evolution, climate, land waters, seas, seashores, snow cover, glaciers, permafrost, soils, flora and fauna, state of the environment and the Nature protection, population, economics, and prospects for future. The popular-scientific edition of the Atlas is intended for use by wide circle of readers and also as a textbook for all levels of education. Presentation of material in the Atlas should combine a high scientific level and accessible language. In a popular form it will clarify traditions of careful treatment to the Nature and the nature-protective ethics of religious confessions of local people. Touristic maps will serve as guides for the Arctic with its bio-landscape and cultural diversity. Content of the Atlas should meet requirements of education standard in the field of geography. Ten sections are proposed for this version of the Atlas: introductory, geological structure, relief and resources, climate, permafrost and glaciers, land waters, seas of the Russian part of the Arctic, its flora and fauna, soils, population and economics, and conclusion Scientific and social results of the Atlas publication together with editorial and advertizing effects are demonstrated. Proposals for a format, scales of maps and type of edition are given, and potential participants of this project are indicated.
15109125 Popov, G. I. (Northeastern Federal University, Yakutsk, Russian Federation); Markov, V. S.; Royev, M. N. and Petrova, L. V. Osobennosti usloviy provedeniya gornykh vyrabotok pri razvedke rossypnykh mestorozhdeniy Yakutii [Features and conditions regarding mining and exploration of placer deposits in the Yakutia region]: Razvedka i Okhrana Nedr, 2013(12), p. 62-65 (English sum.), illus. incl. 2 tables, 4 ref., December 2013.
The features of the geological conditions of exploration placer deposits of Yakutia has been considered. In article there are the main types of working faces of mining and exploration workings. The need to study the composition of the cryogenic structure, structural and physico-mechanical properties of permafrost coarse-clastic rocks in selecting equipment and technology of mining and exploration in the North have emphasized.
15109120 Shepelev, N. G. (Sakha Republic (Yakutia) Geology and Subsurface Resources, Yakutsk, Russian Federation) and Shepeleva, Ya. P. Gidrogeologicheskiye usloviya tsentral'noy chasti Verkhoyano-Kolymskoy sistemy skladok [Hydrogeological conditions of the central parts of the Verkhoyansk-Kolyma fold belt system]: Razvedka i Okhrana Nedr, 2013(12), p. 41-43 (English sum.), illus. incl. geol. sketch maps, 4 ref., December 2013.
In article are the resuts of data about permafrost-hydrogeological conditions of the central part of the Verkhoyano-Kolymskoy fold system. There are characteristics of main aquifers, chemical composition and formation conditions of groundwater. Include an information about the groundwater resources of the area.
15102348 Bonatti, Enrico (Istituto di Scienze Marine, Bologna, Italy); Breger, Dee; Di Rocco, Tommaso; Franchi, Fulvio; Gasperini, Luca; Polonia, Alina; Anfinogenov, John and Anfinogenova, Yana. Origin of John's Stone; a quartzitic boulder from the site of the 1908 Tunguska (Siberia) explosion: Icarus, 258, p. 297-308, illus. incl. 2 tables, sketch map, 81 ref., September 15, 2015.
An exotic meter-size quartzitic boulder known as John's Stone was found by John Anfinogenov in 1972 buried in permafrost close to the epicenter of the 1908 Tunguska blast in a region of Siberia dominated by Permian-Triassic Siberian Trap basalts. The boulder is made almost entirely of well-cemented quartz grains, mostly around 100 mm in size; it contains zones with coarser or finer grain sizes. Rare zircon and rutile crystals are scattered within the quartz matrix. Quartz is often dissected by strain lamellae. The rock contains abundant scattered internal vugs rimmed by euhedral quartz crystals. We cannot exclude that John's Stone is a fragment of a Permian granite-derived sandstone unit. However, based on structure, mineralogy and chemistry the quartzitic boulder may have originated due to silica deposition from hydrothermal solutions that had reacted with basaltic rocks. Anfinogenov et al. (Anfinogenov, J. et al. . Icarus 243, 139-147) interpreted features observed in the permafrost at the base of the boulder as indicating it impacted from above, suggesting the boulder may be a meteorite, possibly of martian origin, given the reported presence on Mars of silica-rich deposits. Triple oxygen isotope ratios determined on two samples of the quartzite reveal a terrestrial rather than a martian meteorites composition. Oxygen isotope data suggest also that the precipitation of SiO2 could have occurred in equilibrium with hydrothermal water (d18Ow »-.5ppm) at the temperature of about 50 °C. The thermal event that generated the quartzite may be related either to the century-old Tunguska Event, or, more probably, to Permian-Triassic Siberian Traps magmatism, although an extraterrestrial origin cannot be completely ruled out.
15109826 Girard, Flavia (Université Montpellier 2, Gésciences Montpellier, Montpellier, France); Ghienne, Jean-François; Du-Bernard, Xavier and Rubino, Jean-Loup. Sedimentary imprints of former ice sheet margins; insights from an end-Ordovician archive (SW Libya): Earth-Science Reviews, 148, p. 259-289, illus. incl. 1 table, geol. sketch map, 265 ref., September 2015.
From the Proterozoic to the Quaternary, the evolution of the Earth was characterised by recurrent periods of glaciation. However, the margins of many ancient ice-sheets are poorly defined on palaeogeographic reconstructions. The extent and outlines of ancient ice sheets can be better understood through careful documentation of sediments deposited at the ice-sheet margin. An outstanding example is provided herein based on an end-Ordovician archive in Libya (Tihemboka area, Murzuq Basin). The four sets of structures include: i) subglacial glaciotectonic structures and soft sediment deformations from flowing glacier ice, such as intraformational glacial striae, intraformational deformation (shear planes, sheath folds), normal microfaults, and large-scale glaciotectonic folds-and-thrusts; (ii) structures resulting from overpressured subglacial (meltwater) flows such as clastic dykes and tunnel valleys; (iii) proglacial depositional structures and facies related to high-magnitude meltwater floods such as sandstone intraclasts, large-scale bedforms resulting from supercritical flows, climbing-dune cross-stratification and kettle holes; and (iv) deformation structures resulting from free floating and nonglacier ice such as ice-keel scours and ice-crystal marks. Such a set of structures points to an ice-marginal (essentially continental) depositional setting, and provides an excellent suite of criteria to identify margins of ancient ice sheets in the stratigraphic record. At a regional scale, a reconstruction through time and space of the related depositional wedge is proposed. This corresponded to a seismic-scale (> 120 m in thickness, 40 km in length) ice-marginal wedge in front of an essentially warm-based ice-sheet inducing concomitant large-scale glaciotectonic deformation, glacial basin and tunnel valley downcuttings. The related ice-front was associated with high-energy meltwater flows feeding a network of deeply incised proglacial channels downstream and, beyond them, a fluvioglacial deltaic system. Shallow ice-marginal permafrost most likely affected the depositional wedge. At a larger scale, the Tihemboka ice-marginal wedge is interpreted as related to a still-stand period over the Gondwana platform, developed over an estimated interval of a few thousands of years. Based on these data, the conditions that arose in a particularly favourable context for the development, the preservation and the identification of ice-marginal wedges in the geological record are reviewed. Significant meltwater-derived sediment deposition and aggradation in an accommodation space resulting either from preglacial inheritance, glacial downcuttings and/or glacio-isostatic lithospheric flexure, or active tectonic subsidence (> 1 Myr) are required for their formation and subsequent preservation.
15109472 Sheynkman, Vlad S. (Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Division, Institute of the Cryosphere, Tyumen, Russian Federation) and Plyusnin, V. M. Oledeneniye severa Zapadnoy Sibiri; spornyye voprosy i puti ikh resheniya [Glaciation in northern West Siberia; matters of dispute and solutions]: Led i Sneg = Ice and Snow, 129, p. 103-120 (English sum.), illus. incl. sketch map, 47 ref., 2015.
Different approaches to the problem of Quaternary glaciation of the North-West Siberia have been considered in the present paper, in which also analysis of glaciological situation has been done for the region. New obtained materials are given to show evidence of ancient glaciation in the Near-Ural region. As well the middle reach of the Ob' River along its right-hand bank has been elucidated. The stated data have clearly demonstrated that diverse geological processes occurred to form the Quaternary deposits in the North-West Siberia. Partly it was an activity of glaciers advanced to the lowland from the centers of glaciation in the surrounding mountains. A role of not small importance belonged also to tectonic processes, which Ob' erosion-accumulative influence and sea transgressions from the Arctic Ocean were connected with. At that all these occurred at the background of deep rock freezing. Study of moraines along the whole length of valleys from the ends of the modern glaciers until the formations of the maximal advance of ancient glaciers confirm our previous conclusion that glaciation also in this part of Siberia could be morphologically of a mountain-valley form only. Developing under conditions of strong permafrost and cryoaridization, the Pleistocene glaciers in the North-West Siberia concentrated in its mountains and did not advance farther than to the foothills. The upland of Siberian Ural, which sometimes has been considered as a moraine relic, presents another formation. It is a completely built system of Ob' terraces representing the blocks of uplift deposits elevated by tectonics along the renewed ancient faults. The conclusion demonstrates that the subsequent spread of the stone moraine material happened as a result of movement of icebergs which broke of the glaciers with the trapped rock debris during sea transgressions from the Arctic Ocean. It has been established that, according to the results of absolute dating of the studied sediments, the Sartan advance of the glaciers, at any rate, concurred with the sea transgression conditioned by tectonic processes in Arctic.
15101012 Mergelov, N. S. (Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Geography, Moscow, Russian Federation). Soils of wet valleys in the Larsemann Hills and Vestfold Hills oases (Princess Elizabeth Land, East Antarctica): Eurasian Soil Science, 47(9), p. 845-862, 58 ref., September 2014. Based on Publisher-supplied data.
The properties and spatial distribution of soils and soil-like bodies in valleys of the coastal Larsemann Hills and Vestfold Hills oases-poorly investigated in terms of the soil areas of East Antarctica-are discussed. In contrast to Dry Valleys-large continental oases of Western Antarctica-the studied territory is characterized by the presence of temporarily waterlogged sites in the valleys. It is argued that the deficit of water rather than the low temperature is the major limiting factor for the development of living organisms and the pedogenesis on loose substrates. The moisture gradients in the surface soil horizons explain the spatial distribution of the different soils and biotic complexes within the studied valleys. Despite the permanent water-logging of the deep suprapermafrost horizons of most of the soils in the valleys, no gley features have been identified in them. The soils of the wet valleys in the Larsemann Hills oasis do not contain carbonates. They have a slightly acid or neutral reaction. The organic carbon and nitrogen contents are mainly controlled by the amount of living and dead biomass rather than by the humic substances proper. The larger part of the biomass is concentrated inside the mineral soil matrix rather than on the soil surface. The stresses caused by surface drying, strong winds, and ultraviolet radiation prevent the development of organisms on the surface of the soil and necessitate the search for shelter within the soil fine earth material (endoedaphic niche) or under the gravelly pavement (hypolithic niche). In the absence of higher plants, humified products of their decomposition, and rainwater that can wash the soil profile and upon the low content of silt and clay particles in the soil material, "classical" soil horizons are not developed. The most distinct (and, often, the only diagnosed) products of pedogenesis in these soils are represented by organomineral films on the surface of mineral particles. Copyright 2014 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.
15109126 Legostayeva, Ya. B. (Northeastern Federal University, Yakutsk, Russian Federation). Vozmozhnye izmeneniya geokhimicheskogo oblika landshaftov v rezul'tate razrabotki Verkhnemunskogo kimberlitovogo polya na territorii respubliki Sakha (Yakutiya) [Possible changes of geochemical landscapes as a result of the Verkhnemunskiy kimberlite field development in the Sakha Republic (Yakutia)]: Razvedka i Okhrana Nedr, 2013(12), p. 65-69 (English sum.), illus. incl. 4 tables, 3 ref., December 2013.
Polygonal technogenic impacts are destroying natural landscapes and dramatically enhances development of cryogenic processes. Territories with universal development of permafrost are characterized by the highest sensitivity to any kind of impact and by weak potential of self-recovering. The geochemical characteristics of cryosols as the main components of northern-taiga landscapes and their possible changes in result industrial development of kimberlite field Upper Muna were studied in the article.
15106325 Grabovnikov, V. A. (Gidrospetsgeologiya, Moscow, Russian Federation); Yegorov, N. N.; Blazhnov, Ya. N. and Novoselova, V. I. Pekomendatsii po organizatsii ob"yektnogo monitoringa geologicheskoy sredy pri sozdanii i ekspluatatsii poligonov zakhoroneniya toksichnykh promyshlennykh otkhodov razlichnogo agregatnogo sostoyaniya i podzemnykh khranilishch nefti [Recommendations on monitoring of geological environment during construction and exploitation of disposal sites for liquid and solid toxic industrial wastes and underground oil storage reservoirs]: Razvedka i Okhrana Nedr, 2013(10), p. 38-43 (English sum.), 13 ref., October 2013.
It is pointed out that in the Russian Federation there are no methodical documents that regulate the processes of organization and conduction of site-based monitoring of the subsoil at the sites of subsurface and near-surface disposal of industrial waste and subsurface oil storage reservoirs. Working procedure, geological environment parameters understudy are considered as well as procedures of their acquisition for various types of subsurface and near-surface industrial waste disposal sites and subsurface oil storage reservoirs. Details of organization of site-based monitoring of the subsoil are given for nearsurface, mine and borehole disposal sites, cavity disposal locations and subsurface oil storage reservoirs in salt rock and permafrost rocks. The need for elaboration of methodical documents on organization and conduction of site-based monitoring of the subsoil for various types of subsurface and near-surface disposal of industrial waste and subsurface oil storage reservoirs is outlined.
15109123 Iudin, M. M. (Northeastern Federal University, Yakutsk, Russian Federation). Napryazhennoye sostoyaniye massiva gornykh porod s uchetom zony protaivaniya i plasticheskikh deformatsiy [Stress state of rock massif in areas of thawing and plastic deformations]: Razvedka i Okhrana Nedr, 2013(12), p. 54-56 (English sum.), illus., 4 ref., December 2013.
The problem of determining the stress-strain massif of rocks when the inside of the plastic zone deformations of frozen rocks are formed by melt rocks area (thawing). Influence of plastic deformation of frozen rocks on the stress state of the zone of thawing around opening.
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15109953 Biskaborn, Boris K. (Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research, Potsdam, Germany); Lantuit, Hugues; Dressler, Almut; Lanckman, Jean-Pierre; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Sergeev, Dmitry; Vieira, Goncalo; Pogliotti, Paolo; Notzli, Jeannette and Christiansen, Hanne H. Quality assessment of permafrost thermal state and active layer thickness data in GTN-P: in 68th Canadian geotechnical conference and 7th Canadian permafrost conference; GEOQuébec 2015 (Côté, Jean, chairperson; et al.), Canadian Geotechnical Conference = Conference Canadienne de Géotechnique, 68, unpaginated (French sum.), illus., 9 ref., 2015. Meeting: 68th Canadian geotechnical conference and 7th Canadian permafrost conference; GEOQuébec 2015, Sept. 20-23, 2015, Quebec City, QC, Canada.
15103008 Côté, Jean and Allard, Michel, chairpersons. 68th Canadian geotechnical conference and 7th Canadian permafrost conference; GEOQuébec 2015: Canadian Geotechnical Conference = Conference Canadienne de Géotechnique, 68, unpaginated, illus., 2015. Meeting: 68th Canadian geotechnical conference and 7th Canadian permafrost conference; GEOQuébec 2015, Sept. 20-23, 2015, Quebec City, QC, Canada. Individual papers within scope are cited separately.
15109967 Ducharme, Marc-André (Université Laval, Centre d'Etudes Nordiques, Quebec, QC, Canada); Allard, Michel; Côté, Jean and L'Hérault, Emmanuel. Measurements of permafrost thermal conductivity through CT-scan analysis: in 68th Canadian geotechnical conference and 7th Canadian permafrost conference; GEOQuébec 2015 (Côté, Jean, chairperson; et al.), Canadian Geotechnical Conference = Conference Canadienne de Géotechnique, 68, unpaginated (French sum.), illus. incl. 2 tables, sketch map, 31 ref., 2015. Meeting: 68th Canadian geotechnical conference and 7th Canadian permafrost conference; GEOQuébec 2015, Sept. 20-23, 2015, Quebec City, QC, Canada.
15109981 Holzman, Sara (Government of Nunavut, Iqaluit, NU, Canada). The Nunavut Permafrost Databank; centralizing Nunavut permafrost for northern decision-making: in 68th Canadian geotechnical conference and 7th Canadian permafrost conference; GEOQuébec 2015 (Côté, Jean, chairperson; et al.), Canadian Geotechnical Conference = Conference Canadienne de Géotechnique, 68, unpaginated (French sum.), illus., 9 ref., 2015. Meeting: 68th Canadian geotechnical conference and 7th Canadian permafrost conference; GEOQuébec 2015, Sept. 20-23, 2015, Quebec City, QC, Canada.
15109994 Idrees, M. (Highways and Public Works, Transportation Engineering Branch, Whitehorse, YK, Canada); Burn, C. R.; Moore, J. L. and Calmeis, F. Monitoring permafrost conditions along the Dempster Highway: in 68th Canadian geotechnical conference and 7th Canadian permafrost conference; GEOQuébec 2015 (Côté, Jean, chairperson; et al.), Canadian Geotechnical Conference = Conference Canadienne de Géotechnique, 68, unpaginated (French sum.), illus. incl. 5 tables, sketch map, 18 ref., 2015. Meeting: 68th Canadian geotechnical conference and 7th Canadian permafrost conference; GEOQuébec 2015, Sept. 20-23, 2015, Quebec City, QC, Canada.
15109977 Mathon-Dufour, Valérie (Université Laval, Centre d'Études Nordiques, Quebec, QC, Canada); Allard, Michel and LeBlanc, Anne-Marie. Assessment of permafrost conditions in support of the rehabilitation and adaptation to climate change of the Iqaluit Airport, Nunavut, Canada: in 68th Canadian geotechnical conference and 7th Canadian permafrost conference; GEOQuébec 2015 (Côté, Jean, chairperson; et al.), Canadian Geotechnical Conference = Conference Canadienne de Géotechnique, 68, unpaginated (French sum.), illus. incl. 3 tables, sketch maps, 14 ref., 2015. Meeting: 68th Canadian geotechnical conference and 7th Canadian permafrost conference; GEOQuébec 2015, Sept. 20-23, 2015, Quebec City, QC, Canada.
15107209 Stanley, Valerie L. (Wisconsin Geological and Natural History Survey, Madison, WI) and Marshall, Katherine J. Evidence of active permafrost in Minnesota following the Wisconsin Glaciation [abstr.]: in Geological Society of America, North-Central Section, 49th annual meeting, Abstracts with Programs - Geological Society of America, 47(5), p. 80, May 2015. Meeting: Geological Society of America, North-Central Section, 49th annual meeting, May 19-20, 2015, Madison, WI.
The presence of ice wedge polygons suggests that permafrost conditions occurred in Minnesota following the Wisconsin glaciation. Permafrost conditions following the Wisconsin glaciation have been inferred in Minnesota based on tundra pollen assemblages and the scarcity of wood debris (French and Millar, 2014; Johnson, 1990). High resolution Google aerial imagery collected during the summer and fall 2013 drought reveal polygonal patterns in Wisconsinan sand and gravel (outwash plains), clay (ice-walled lake plains), and diamicton (drumlins and hummocky terrain) that are otherwise undetectable unless identified in cross-section at exposures. Features are primarily identified in agricultural fields and are often obscured by surrounding forests and urban land. Nonsorted polygons are ~15-60 m in diameter with ~1-3 m borders. These polygonal patterns are interpreted as networks of ice wedge casts, relicts of ice wedges which occur in polygonal patterns in the active layer of modern permafrost and are formed by annual thawing and contraction. Ice wedge polygons indicate sustained conditions with an annual mean air temperature of -5°C or below (Baulin et al., 1978). Cold and dry conditions continued long enough to develop widespread permafrost in Minnesota. As the regional climate warmed after the Wisconsin glaciation, permafrost thawed and a mix of surrounding material and finer eolian sediments filled in the former ice wedges. Since these ice wedge casts generally contain finer material than the surrounding glacial deposits, they retain soil moisture better during a drought, permitting remote identification (Clayton et al., 2001). Although ice wedge polygons have been reported in Wisconsin (Clayton et al., 2001) and in southeastern Minnesota (Zanner, 1999), this is the first time that they have been reported in central and east-central Minnesota. These features must postdate deposition of the host materials; however, future studies can help to constrain the timing of active permafrost.
15104179 Meyer, H. (Alfred Wegener Institute Helmholtz-Center for Polar and Marine Research Potsdam, Potsdam, Germany); Opel, T.; Laepple, T.; Alexander, D.; Hoffmann, K. and Werner, M. North Siberian permafrost reveals Holocene Arctic winter warming [abstr.]: in AGU 2014 fall meeting, American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, 2014, Abstract PP23E-06, December 2014. Meeting: American Geophysical Union 2014 fall meeting, Dec. 15-19, 2014, San Francisco, CA.
The Arctic climate has experienced a major warming over the past decades, which is unprecedented in the last 2000 yrs. There are, however, still major uncertainties about the temperature evolution during the Holocene. Most proxy reconstructions suggest a cooling in mid- and late Holocene (e.g. Wanner, 2008), whereas climate model simulations show only weak changes or even a moderate warming (e.g. Lohmann et al., 2013). In this study, we used ice wedges as promising permafrost climate archive studied by stable water isotope methods. Ice wedges may be identified by vertically oriented foliations, and they form by the repeated filling of winter thermal contraction cracks by snow melt water in spring. Therefore, the isotopic composition of wedge ice may be attributed to the climate conditions of the cold season (i.e. winter and spring). 42 samples of organic material enclosed in ice wedges have been directly dated by Radiocarbon methods. Here, we present the first terrestrial stable oxygen isotope record of Holocene winter temperatures in up to centennial-scale resolution based on permafrost ice wedges (Lena River delta; Siberian Arctic). The Lena ice-wedge record shows that the recent isotopic temperatures are the highest of the past 7000 years. Despite similarities to Arctic temperature reconstructions of the last two millennia (Kaufman et al., 2009), it suggests a winter warming throughout the mid and late Holocene, opposite to most existing other proxy records (Wanner, 2008). This apparent contradiction can be explained by the seasonality of the ice-wedge genesis in combination with orbital and greenhouse gas forcing and is consistent with climate model simulations. We conclude that the present model-data mismatch might be an artifact of the summer bias of the existing proxy records and thus, our record helps to reconcile the understanding of the northern hemisphere Holocene temperature evolution. This is particular true for the Russian Arctic significantly underrepresented in Arctic-wide climate reconstructions. Kaufman, D. S. et al. Science 325, 1236-1239 (2009). Wanner, H. et al., Quat. Sci. Rev. 27, 1791-1828, (2008). Lohmann, G., Pfeiffer, M., Laepple, T., Leduc, G. & Kim, J. H. Clim. Past 9, 1807-1839, (2013).
15109944 Beya, Fabrice Kazambua (Université du Québec en Abitibi Témiscamingue, Research Institute on Mine and Environment, Rouyn-Noranda, QC, Canada); Mbonimpa, Mamert; Belem, Tikou; Benzaazoua, Mostafa; Kalonji, Kayumba and Ouellet, Serge. Preliminary study of the influence of temperature and salinity on the thermal properties of hardening cemented paste backfill: in 68th Canadian geotechnical conference and 7th Canadian permafrost conference; GEOQuébec 2015 (Côté, Jean, chairperson; et al.), Canadian Geotechnical Conference = Conference Canadienne de Géotechnique, 68, unpaginated (French sum.), illus. incl. 8 tables, 48 ref., 2015. Meeting: 68th Canadian geotechnical conference and 7th Canadian permafrost conference; GEOQuébec 2015, Sept. 20-23, 2015, Quebec City, QC, Canada.
15109966 Cherbunina, Maria (Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russian Federation); Brouchkov, Anatoil; Karnysheva, Elina; Fukuda, Masami and Galchenko, Valeri. The results of 5- year experiment of methane production from frozen soils: in 68th Canadian geotechnical conference and 7th Canadian permafrost conference; GEOQuébec 2015 (Côté, Jean, chairperson; et al.), Canadian Geotechnical Conference = Conference Canadienne de Géotechnique, 68, unpaginated (French sum.), illus. incl. 7 tables, 28 ref., 2015. Meeting: 68th Canadian geotechnical conference and 7th Canadian permafrost conference; GEOQuébec 2015, Sept. 20-23, 2015, Quebec City, QC, Canada.
15109976 Li Ren (Chinese Academy of Science, Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Lanzhou, China); Wu Tonghua; Lin Zhao; Xie Changwei; Xiao Yao; Hu Guojie and Du Yizhen. Investigation on the soil thermal conductivity of different land surface patterns in the northern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China: in 68th Canadian geotechnical conference and 7th Canadian permafrost conference; GEOQuébec 2015 (Côté, Jean, chairperson; et al.), Canadian Geotechnical Conference = Conference Canadienne de Géotechnique, 68, unpaginated, illus. incl. 3 tables, 29 ref., 2015. Meeting: 68th Canadian geotechnical conference and 7th Canadian permafrost conference; GEOQuébec 2015, Sept. 20-23, 2015, Quebec City, QC, Canada.
15108985 Dunning, Stuart (Northumbria University, Geography, Newcastle-Upon-Tyne, United Kingdom); Allan, Mark S.; Lim, Michael and Rosser, N. J. Helicopter, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and ground based photogrammetric monitoring of mass movements in deglaciating landscapes [abstr.]: in AGU 2014 fall meeting, American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, 2014, Abstract NH41A-3781, December 2014. Meeting: American Geophysical Union 2014 fall meeting, Dec. 15-19, 2014, San Francisco, CA.
When valley glaciers retreat and/or thin, they expose stores of sediment prone to failure and rapid reworking through a range of mass movement processes. The newly exposed bedrock slopes are also thought to undergo a period of more intense, or more frequent, failure before returning to the background norm. However, the magnitude-frequency of failures above and in front of ice is poorly constrained, as are their spatial relationship to previous ice extents. Here we show the results from a combination of repeat helicopter, UAV and ground based photogrammetry that has been processed using Structure from Motion (SfM) techniques to produce high-resolution elevation and change models. These data require few ground control and so lend themselves to deployment in remote, or difficult to access high-mountain regions where our understanding of failure patterns has been limited by a lack of high-quality monitoring data. Our initial data cover the valley walls of Glacier d'Argentiere, Mer De Glace, Glacier des Bossons and the Bionnassay Glacier on the French side of the Mt Blanc massif at the start and end of the summer 2014 season. These glaciers have a rich documented history of ice retreat, thinning, and permafrost locations to link to the spatial patterns of failure.
15108979 McSaveney, M. J. (GNS Science, Lower Hutt, New Zealand); Cox, S. and Hancox, G. T. Seeking a credible cause of the recent increase in rock-avalanche frequency in New Zealand's Southern Alps [abstr.]: in AGU 2014 fall meeting, American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, 2014, Abstract NH41A-3775, December 2014. Meeting: American Geophysical Union 2014 fall meeting, Dec. 15-19, 2014, San Francisco, CA.
An apparent increase in the occurrence rate of large, spontaneous rock avalanches in New Zealand's Southern Alps has been suggested by Allen et al. 2011 and Allen and Huggel, 2013. They suggest a link to alpine permafrost decay due to anthropogenic global warming, similar to the increased occurrence rate in the European Alps which they attribute to this cause. The rock avalanche inventory is now more complete for the interval since 1976 because we have updated and added to the inventory. The threshold event volume of the inventory is ill-defined, but is probably of the order of 100,000 cubic metres; many events exceed 1,000,000 cubic metres. It is not credible that the earlier observers missed 75% of the region's occurrences which would be needed if the true rate had been uniform over the last 50 years. The rate has been about 20 events per decade for the last 10 years, whereas for the period 1976-1999, it was 4 per decade. Although the altitude range associated with most events is around the expected lower limit for present-day permafrost (Allen et al. 2011), it also is coincident with the altitudes of the region's topographically protruding slopes which favour stress concentration and failure. In addition, the earliest documented spontaneous rock avalanche in the Southern Alps occurred in 1873 and fell from a similar altitude on the same face of the same mountain as the most recent event in 2014. Cox et al. (In Press) shows that valley-bottom hot springs in the Southern Alps respond to distant strong earthquakes in a manner suggesting weak local ground deformation and increased bedrock permeability. Here we suggest that the surrounding slopes may respond to the same stimuli. As also observed elsewhere, the passage of seismic waves through a closely jointed rock mass under high static shear stress may lead to incremental permanent deformation and may accelerate stress corrosion. We suggest that the observed occurrence-rate increase may be associated with a seismic-moment-release increase in New Zealand, which is approximately coincident with a global increase in seismic moment release. It may also be associated with the accumulating slope deformations since about 1717 AD, when a great earthquake triggered much slope collapse in the region.
15108625 Wood, J. H. (Talbert Middle School, Huntington Beach, CA); Natali, S.; Schade, J. D.; Fiske, G. J.; Linder, C.; Ramos, E.; Weber, L. R. and Kuhn, M. A. Polaris undergraduates connecting with K-12 students though story telling-learning about climate change using web-mapping based investigations [abstr.]: in AGU 2014 fall meeting, American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, 2014, Abstract ED13E-04, December 2014. Meeting: American Geophysical Union 2014 fall meeting, Dec. 15-19, 2014, San Francisco, CA.
The Polaris Project is a unique undergraduate education, research, and outreach initiative that examines global climate change in the Siberian Arctic. The program focuses on permafrost and carbon processes in the boreal and tundra ecosystems of the Kolyma Watershed, the largest watershed underlain by continuous permafrost. Each summer, a diverse group of undergraduate students and faculty mentors spends one month living on the Kolyma River, developing independent projects that engage the students directly in the biogeosciences through authentic scientific research experiences in remote field sites. In all cases the student projects contribute to the overall goal of the Polaris Project to investigate the transport and transformations of carbon and nutrients as they move among terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and the atmosphere. Through the use of online interactive ArcGIS maps the students share their experiences and learning, while posing questions in a format that can be used to engage K-12 learners in the classroom. By embedding information; including databases, photographs and video, informational text, and geospatial data; into user-friendly maps the Polaris Project students will "tell the story" of studying climate change in the Siberian tundra in a way that allows the users to explore climate science through inquiry and web-map based investigation. Through performance expectation topics including Weather and Climate, Interactions, Earth's Systems, and Human impacts, this investigation uses consideration of the vast amounts of ancient organic matter locked up in permafrost in the region, and concerns about the fate of this ancient organic carbon as temperatures warm and permafrost thaws, to make K-12 climate change connections with the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS).
15103009 Côté, Jean and Allard, Michel, chairpersons. GeoQuébec 2015; Challenges from North to South; conference program; abstracts--GeoQuébec 2015; Des défis du Nord au Sud; programme de la conférence; résumés: Canadian Geotechnical Society, Canada, Canadian National Committee for the International Permafrost Association, 246 p., (English, French), 2015. Meeting: GeoQuébec 2015; 68th Canadian geotechnical conference and the 7th Canadian permafrost conference, Sept. 20-23, 2015, Quebec City, QC, Canada. Individual abstracts are not cited separately.
URL: http://www.geoquebec2015.ca/documents/58/files/PROG_GeoQc2015_web_vF_compressed. ...
15103605 Bataille, Clément P. (University of Utah, Department of Geology and Geophysics, Salt Lake City, UT); Brennan, S. R.; Hartmann, J.; Moosdorf, N.; Wooller, M. J. and Bowen, Gabriel J. A geostatistical framework to predict strontium isotopes variations in bedrock and rivers [abstr.]: in Goldschmidt abstracts 2014, V.M. Goldschmidt Conference - Program and Abstracts, 24, p. 137, 1 ref., 2014. Meeting: Goldschmidt 2014, June 8-13, 2014, Sacramento, CA.
15105566 Vonk, Jorien E. (Urecht University, Department of Earth Sciences, Utrecht, Netherlands); Giosan, Liviu; Blusztajn, Jerzy; Montlucon, Daniel; Graf-Pannatier, Elisabeth; McIntyre, Cameron; Wacker, Lukas; Dickens, Angela and Eglinton, Timothy I. Spatial and historical variations in sediment and organic matter supply to the Mackenzie Delta [abstr.]: in Goldschmidt abstracts 2014, V.M. Goldschmidt Conference - Program and Abstracts, 24, p. 2593, 2014. Meeting: Goldschmidt 2014, June 8-13, 2014, Sacramento, CA.
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15102972 Gibbs, Ann E. (U. S. Geological Survey) and Richmond, Bruce M. National assessment of shoreline change; historical change along the north coast of Alaska, U.S.-Canadian border to Icy Cape: Open-File Report - U. S. Geological Survey, Rep. No. OF 2015-1048, 96 p., illus. incl. 9 tables, sketch maps, 82 ref., 2015.
Beach erosion is a persistent problem along most open-ocean shores of the United States. Along the Arctic coast of Alaska, coastal erosion is widespread, may be accelerating, and is threatening defense and energy-related infrastructure, coastal habitats, and Native communities. As coastal populations continue to expand and infrastructure and habitat are increasingly threatened by erosion, there is increased demand for accurate information regarding past and present trends and rates of shoreline movement. There also is a need for a comprehensive analysis of shoreline change with metrics that are consistent from one coastal region to another. To meet these national needs, the U.S. Geological Survey is conducting an analysis of historical shoreline changes along the open-ocean sandy shores of the conterminous United States and parts of Hawaii, Alaska, and the Great Lakes. One purpose of this work is to develop standard, repeatable methods for mapping and analyzing shoreline change so that periodic, systematic, and internally consistent updates regarding coastal erosion and land loss can be made nationally. This report on shoreline change along the north coast of Alaska, between the U.S.-Canadian border and Icy Cape, is one in a series of regionally focused reports on historical shoreline change. Previous investigations include analyses and descriptive reports for the coasts of the U.S. Gulf of Mexico, the Southeast Atlantic, California, the New England and Mid-Atlantic, portions of Hawaii, and the Pacific Northwest coasts of Oregon and Washington. Similar to the earlier reports in this series, this report summarizes the methods of analysis, documents and describes the results of the analysis, and explains historical trends and rates of shoreline change. This Alaska shoreline change assessment differs from previously published shoreline change assessments in that: (1) only two historical shorelines (from the 1940s and 2000s eras) were available for the Alaska study area whereas four or more shorelines (from 1850 to 2002) were available for the other assessments and, thus, only end-point rates for one long-term analysis period are reported here, compared to a combination of long-term and short-term rates as reported in other studies; (2) modern (2000s era) shorelines in this study represent a visually derived land-water interface position versus an elevation based, tidally referenced shoreline position; and (3) both exposed open-ocean and sheltered mainland-lagoon shorelines and rates of change are included in this study compared to other locations where only exposed open-ocean sandy shorelines or bluff edges were evaluated. No distinction was made between sand or gravel beaches, and the base of the unconsolidated coastal bluff was considered the shoreline where no fronting beach existed.
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