became the official News Bulletin of the International
Permafrost Association in December 1989. It was preceded by five
numbered newsletters between May 1986 and April 1989 that were prepared
and distributed by the IPA Secretary General J. Ross Mackay. The
early history and evolution the IPA is recorded in these newsletters.
The first formal issue of Frozen Ground assumed the No. 6
followed by two issues of the News Bulletin annually until 1997.
From 1997-2009 a single, printed annual issue was prepared. Starting
in 2010, Frozen Ground was prepared and distributed in electronic
format by the IPA Secretariats, in part to save on labor and mailing
costs. The compilation and production of Frozen Ground varied
and credits are found in each issue.
Starting in 2013 the IPA began publishing the Annual Country Reports
in a separate publication that is available as a compiled PDF and
includes the U.S. annual reports.